Breeders must increasingly face the problem of genetic diseases and therefore many questions arise:
why are genetic diseases occurring?
What are the causes?
Why are they so common in dogs?
What are the tools available to breeders to detect these diseases?
The best way to ensure breeding selection, livestock practices to limit the spread of these genetic diseases?
A genetic disease: what is it?
A genetic disorder (also known as hereditary disease) is cause dysfunction of one or more genes from parents to children. Today, 400 genetic diseases are described in dogs.
Genetic diseases are caused by the malfunction of a single gene. They are called monogenic diseases.
Examples of monogenic diseases:
• Eye diseases such as: Retnia atrophy
• Metabolic diseases (Iposfisario dwarfism, Von Willebrand disease)
• Kidney disease (Cystinuria, familial nephropathy)
Other hereditary diseases are caused by the malfunction of several genes: they are chamiate "polygenic diseases"
More monogenic diseases are recessive:
• The disease only appears if two copies of the gene are affected by the
• When the two copies of the gene are normal: the dog is healthy
• When one of the two copies of the defective gene: The dog is a healthy carrier. It does not develop the disease, but it transmits the anomaly to its offspring.
How to detect a genetic disorder?
Traditional solutions have existed for years for screening for dog genetic diseases, it is more often clinical examinations by a veterinarian (examinations at the sight, radiographs of the hip...) These clinical findings are limited, because helps only to identify affected dogs, not healthy carrier dogs.
The DNA test has many advantages for descendants, selection and even the diagnosis of genetic diseases:
• It is reliable
• Allows to detect carrier dogs as affected dogs.
• Can be implemented early in dog life (from birth)
• It is valid for the whole life of the dog.
However the DNA test allows identify only known anomalies, the test cannot be used to detect other genetic diseases that affect the same body or tissue (retina, for example) and cannot be used to highlight diseases Acquired (non-genetic).
From a levy taken from a dog (blood, tissues, oral withdrawal) and authenticated by a veterinarian. A DNA test is performed to determine the presence of the anomaly causing the disease or to characterize one or more markers connected to the
How to manage the genetic illnesses of the breeding?
The Dna test is a criterion of selection as the morphological and behavioral characteristics of dogs. The breeder is therefore able of effetuare the best possible choice, keeping in mind the health's, and of the dog and his/her descendants.
To avoid to potentially produce stock with pups parties, and to reduce the incidence of the hereditary illness in the race, some emplicis suggestions are essential :
• Not do reproduce dogs cut
• To reproduce solo animal cures the more possible
• If a dog healthy carrier is raised for the reproduction, riprodurrlo with a healthy dog.
The possible insertion in the reproduction of animals carriers you/he/she cannot degrade the general genetic difference